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Who is Ibn Khaldun, the founder of sociology?


Who is Ibn Khaldun?

Lineage and education:

Ibn Khaldun is Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun Abu Zaid Wali al-Din al-Hadrami (1332 - 1406 CE), his origin is from Hadramawt in Yemen, he was born in Tunisia and grew up there and graduated from Zaytouna University, better known as Ibn Khaldun University.

His family was interested in science and literature, and enjoyed a social standing that enabled him to study at the hands of the best teachers in the Maghreb. So he received traditional Islamic pedagogy, studied the Noble Qur’an that he memorized by heart, Arabic linguistics, the basis of understanding the Qur’an, science of hadith, Sharia (law), jurisprudence and history science.

His grandparents in Andalusia and then Tunisia occupied important political and religious positions, which contributed to Ibn Khaldun’s movement between cities and the increase in his knowledge and experience, where he worked in writing and history.

Ibn Khaldun's career:

In the middle of the seventh century AH, his family migrated from Andalusia to Morocco and then to Tunisia during the rule state of Banu Hafs, and there he married the daughter of one of the leaders of the armies of Banu Hafs, and in this place he began to write his famous book Al-Ebar, Diwan Al-Mubtadaa and Al-Khabar in the days of the Arabs, Ajam, Berbers and those of their contemporaries of the great known More on (Introduction to Ibn Khaldun).

His proximity to the court of Banu Hafs and his work in writing, history, observing and inspecting matters and secrets of governance, running the country's economic and social affairs, understanding the internal and external relations in the country, and the solutions to the plague epidemic in Tunisia, which eliminated many people and the knowledge of Ibn Khaldun himself, all this and more contributed In his acquisition of the experience and the genius that resulted in his writing (Introduction to Ibn Khaldun - Muqaddimah).

After Tunisia, he went to the Hijaz to perform the Hajj, and then to Egypt to settle there and take over the royal court during the reign of the Mamluk Sultan Al-Zahir Barquq and beyond for about a quarter of a century, and he remained in Egypt until his death.

Ibn Khaldun is considered the founder of sociology (human urbanism) and the first to put it on its modern foundations. He came up with theories about urban laws, the theory of neurosis, state building and the phases of its life and its downfall. His views and theories preceded what was reached by several centuries later by a number of famous scholars, such as the French scientist Auguste Comte.

Among his books also:

- Pulp collecting in the fundamentals of religion.

Asker treatment and refinement of matters

-Introducing Ibn Khaldun and his journeys east and west (his memoirs).

Ibn Khaldun's death:

Ibn Khaldun died in 1406 CE at the age of seventy-six and was buried near Bab al-Nasr in north Cairo, without precisely determining the location of the grave.

Ibn Khaldoun statue in Algeria

From the sayings of Ibn Khaldun:

- The human gender can only be found in cooperation.

- History on its face is nothing more than informing, but in its core is consideration and investigation.

- Nervousness is a natural tendency in humans since they were.

- The difference between the generations in their conditions is related to the difference in their pension.

- If a person is corrupted in his ability, then in his morals and religion, then his humanity will be corrupted and become a foul of the truth.

- He turns the ruler over his apprehension and jealousy of his people into fear for his king, so he takes them with murder and insult.

- Thinkers in the past believed that the mind's discovery of the truth is not a strange thing, but what is strange is its inability to discover it.

French philosopher Roger Garaudy says:

With regard to the study of the structure and development of societies, the most progressive figure is represented by the person of Ibn Khaldun, the scientist, the artist, the man of war, and the jurist, who is the philosopher who matched the giants of our renaissance with his global genius since the fourteenth century.

Prepared by Aram Saadia

Read also: The memory of the polio vaccine discovery by Dr. Jonas Salk



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